Identifying Whole Grain Products

The Whole Grains Council has created an official packaging symbol called the Whole Grain Stamp that helps consumers find real whole grain products. The Stamp started to appear on store shelves in mid-2005 and is becoming more widespread every day.

The Whole Grain Stamp makes it easy

With the Whole Grain Stamp, finding three servings of whole grains is easy: Pick three foods with the 100% Stamp or six foods with ANY Whole Grain Stamp.

The 100% Stamp assures you that a food contains a full serving or more of whole grain in each labeled serving and that ALL the grain is whole grain, while the 50%+ Stamp and the Basic Stamp appear on products containing at least half a serving of whole grain per labeled serving.

But what if there is no Stamp?

Until the Whole Grain Stamp is on all foods, how can consumers know if a product is whole grain?
First, check the package label. Many whole grain products not yet using the Stamp will list the grams of whole grain somewhere on the package, or say something like “100% whole wheat.” You can trust these statements. But be skeptical if you see the words “whole grain” without more details, such as “crackers made with whole grain.” The product may contain only miniscule amounts of whole grains.

Words you may see on packages What they mean
  • whole grain
  • whole wheat
  • whole
  • stoneground whole
  • brown rice
  • oats, oatmeal (including old-fashioned oatmeal, instant oatmeal)
  • wheatberries
YES — Contains all parts of the grain, so you’re getting all the nutrients of the whole grain.
  • wheat
  • semolina
  • durum wheat
  • organic flour
  • stoneground
  • multigrain (may describe several whole grains or several refined grains, or a mix of both)
MAYBE — These words are accurate descriptions of the package contents, but because some parts of the grain MAY be missing, you are likely missing the benefits of whole grains. When in doubt, don’t trust these words!
  • enriched flour
  • wheat flour
  • degerminated (on corn meal)
  • bran
  • wheat germ
NO — These words never describe whole grains.

Note that words like “wheat,” “durum,” and “multigrain” can (and do) appear on good whole grain foods, too. None of these words alone guarantees whether a product is whole grain or refined grain, so look for the word “whole” and follow the other advice here.

Check the list of ingredients

If the first ingredient listed contains the word “whole” (such as “whole wheat flour” or “whole oats”), it is likely – but not guaranteed – that the product is predominantly whole grain. If there are two grain ingredients and only the second ingredient listed is a whole grain, the product may contain as little as 1% or as much as 49% whole grain (in other words, it could contain a little bit of whole grain, or nearly half).

Multiple grains get even trickier

If there are several grain ingredients, the situation gets more complex. For instance, let’s say a “multi-grain bread” is 30% refined flour and 70% whole grain. But the whole grains are split between several different grains, and each whole grain comprises less than 30% of the total.

The ingredients might read “Enriched white flour, whole wheat, whole oat flour, whole cornmeal and whole millet” and you would NOT be able to tell from the label whether the whole grains make up 70% of the product or 7% of the product. That’s why we created the Whole Grain Stamp program.

Fiber is not reliable

Fiber varies from grain to grain, ranging from 3.5% in rice to over 15% in barley and bulgur. What’s more, high-fiber products sometimes contain bran or other added fiber without actually having much if any whole grain.

Both fiber and whole grains have been shown to have health benefits. But they’re not interchangeable. So checking the fiber on a label is not a very reliable way to guess whether a product is truly whole grain.

A product can be called durum wheat semolina pasta only when it is the result of the extrusion, rolling and drying of dough made exclusively from hard wheat and water without the addition of coloring agents or preservatives. The special properties of durum wheat mean that the starch is not lost and the pasta does not overcook, ensuring a unique and authentic taste.

What are the differences between the two different types of wheat?

Soft wheat grains break easily and are used to obtain white flour that is employed in many ways according to the degree of refining: type 0, 00, type 1, type 2 and whole wheat. Soft wheat flour is generally used for making bread and bakery products because the dough obtained is relatively tough and quite extendible. Soft wheat flour contains less proteins and absorbs less humidity compared to hard wheat flour.

Hard or durum wheat grains are more difficult to break apart, they have a course texture and a yellow-amber color. From the milling of hard wheat we obtain semolina, whole wheat semolina and re-milled semolina. Compared to white flour, semolina is granular and has an intense yellow color because it contains carotenoids. It is tougher and less extendible than white flour and this is why it is suitable for the production of bread and pasta.

Nutrition Facts of durum wheat semolina

Pasta is made from only two ingredients: water and semolina, therefore the quality of the pasta depends exclusively on the quality of the durum wheat semolina. From a nutritional point of view it contains more proteins and gluten than soft wheat flour and the products made from it preserve longer, have a lower glycemic index and contain carotenoids, organic pigments that bond and eliminate antioxidants. The ability of hard wheat to retain the starch contained in it ensures perfect cooking and prevents the pasta from sticking.

In order to maintain the tradition of pasta, the Italian law imposes to use durum wheat semolina for the production of dry pasta (Law n.580 of 1967 and amendments). However, the recent authorization to sell pasta made from soft or mixed wheat has led to the introduction of low quality pasta brands in our supermarkets that do not respect the ancient art and offer a product with organoleptic characteristics that are not comparable to real Italian pasta.

How is Fabianelli’s durum wheat semolina pasta produced?

Since 150 years, Pastificio Fabianelli uses only semolina coming from prime quality durum wheat, free from impurities and with tenacious gluten. Once it reaches the production site the semolina is subject to strict controls and is stored in special silos. During the kneading phase it is mixed with 20-30% of water and creates a net of gluten that enfolds the starch keeping it from dissipating in the water during cooking. Once it has reached the optimal consistency and plasticity the dough is extruded by means of teflon or bronze dies especially designed to calibrate the thickness and obtain the desired pasta shapes.

The subsequent drying phase is the most delicate and Fabianelli chooses to adopt the slow method with moderate temperatures so that the quality of the finished product is not compromised. The initial part of this process involves the surface layers of the pasta that begin to harden and to lose one third of the total humidity content, after which, the definite drying phase is carried out in special ovens. The pasta is then brought back to room temperature and carried towards the packaging phase by means of conveying belts where automatic machines pack the product in boxes and transparent bags ready to reach the stores all over the world.

This is why durum wheat semolina pasta is different…..beware of imitations!

Docket Number: FDA-2006-D-0298 Issued by: Guidance Issuing Office Office of Foods and Veterinary Medicine, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition

For questions regarding this draft document contact, Food Labeling and Standards Staff (HFS-820), Office of Nutrition, Labeling and Dietary Supplements, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, 5001 Campus Drive, College Park, Maryland 20740, 240-402-2371.

This draft guidance, when finalized, will represent the Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA’s) current thinking on this topic. It does not create or confer any rights for or on any person and does not operate to bind FDA or the public. You can use an alternative approach if the approach satisfies the requirements of the applicable statutes and regulations.

I. Introduction

This guidance is intended for the regulated food industry and FDA personnel. The purpose of this guidance is to provide guidance to industry about what the agency considers to be “whole grain” and to assist manufacturers in labeling their products.

FDA’s guidance documents, including this guidance, do not establish legally enforceable responsibilities. Instead, guidances describe the Agency’s current thinking on a topic and should be viewed only as recommendations, unless specific regulatory or statutory requirements are cited. The use of the word should in Agency guidances means that something is suggested or recommended, but not required.

II. Background

Through the years, the Federal Government has worked to provide consistent and scientifically sound recommendations to consumers about healthy eating patterns and wise food choices. Such advice originated with the “Basic Four” and has progressed through today’s “Dietary Guidelines for Americans” (developed jointly by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)). “Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2005” (2005 DG) recommends that Americans, among other things, “consume 3 or more ounce-equivalents of whole grain products per day, with the rest of the recommended grains coming from enriched or whole-grain products” and that “in general at least half the grains should come from whole grains” (Ref. 1).

Manufacturers can make factual statements about whole grains on the label of their products such as “100% whole grain ” (as percentage labeling under 21 CFR 102.5(b)) or “10 grams of whole grains ” (21 CFR 101.13(i) (3)) provided that the statements are not false or misleading under section 403(a) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the Act) and do not imply a particular level of the ingredient, i.e., “high ” or “excellent source. ” In addition, manufacturers may use health claims relating whole grains with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease and certain cancers on their product labels for qualifying foods based on notifications FDA received under section 403(r)(3)(C) of the Act (21 U.S.C. 343 (r)(3)(C)) (health claims based on an authoritative statement of a scientific body) (see FDA Modernization Act of 1997 (FDAMA) Claims). To assist manufacturers in labeling their products in accordance with the Act, the agency has reviewed various industry and scientific definitions of “whole grains” and developed the following questions and answers to provide guidance to industry about what the agency considers to be “whole grain.”

III. Definition–Questions and Answers

  1. Question: What factors should be considered in determining whether a food is a whole grain?

    Answer: Cereal grains that consist of the intact, ground, cracked or flaked caryopsis, whose principal anatomical components – the starchy endosperm, germ and bran – are present in the same relative proportions as they exist in the intact caryopsis – should be considered a whole grain food.

  2. Question: What are some examples of cereal grains?

    Answer: Cereal grains may include amaranth, barley, buckwheat, bulgur, corn (including popcorn), millet, quinoa, rice, rye, oats, sorghum, teff, triticale, wheat, and wild rice.

  3. Question: Should soybeans and chickpeas be considered whole grains?

    Answer: Soybeans and chickpeas should not be considered whole grains, but should be considered legumes. Products derived from legumes, oilseeds (sunflower seeds), and roots (e.g., arrowroot) should not be considered whole grains.

  4. Question: Should a corn flour or corn meal made from corn grain to which the pericarp has been removed be considered whole grain?

    Answer: The four principal parts of a mature corn kernel consist of the hull or bran (pericarp and seed coat), germ, endosperm, and the tip cap (Ref. 2). The tip cap, the attachment point of the cob, may or may not stay with the kernel during handling, and, thus, is not considered an integral part of the kernel or caryopsis. However, the bran, germ and endosperm are integral parts of the kernel and should be present in the relative proportions as found in the kernel to be considered “whole grain.” Therefore, for corn flour or corn meal to be “whole grain” it should include the pericarp as well as the other essential fractions.

    We note that there are standards of identity for various types of corn flour and corn meal in 21 CFR Part 137 (i.e., § 137.211, white corn flour; § 137.215, yellow corn flour; § 137.250, white corn meal; § 137.255, bolted white corn meal; § 137.260, enriched corn meals; § 137.265, degerminated white corn meal; § 137.270, self-rising white corn meal; § 137.275, yellow corn meal; § 137.280, bolted yellow corn meal; § 137.285, degerminated yellow corn meal; and § 137.290, self-rising yellow corn meal). Degerminated and bolted corn meals should not be considered whole grain products because germ or bran has been removed during processing. Because the rest of the meal standards allow removal of some of the hull, these also should not be considered whole grain products.

  5. Question: Barley has a particularly tough hull and is often pearled to make it easier to cook and digest. Can the hull and perhaps a small amount of the bran attached to the hull be removed from barley in the pearling process and it still be considered a whole grain?

    Answer: Most of the barley that is used for food production in the U.S. is of a type in which the kernels are covered with a very tough inedible hull. This outer hull (which covers the bran layer) must be removed before the kernel can be used for human food. The hull on many varieties of barley is strongly attached to the pericarp. Thus, barley is difficult to dehull and generally is pearled. The pearling process abrades away the outer surfaces of the grain with an abrasive surface and removes some of the bran from the barley.

    In general, the barley that is used for human food in the U.S. is pearled. Barley that is pearled should not be considered a whole grain because some of the bran layer has been removed. Dehulled barley should be considered a whole grain because only the tough inedible hull or outer covering has been removed, but the bran layer is left intact.

  6. Question: Should rolled oats be considered a whole grain?

    Answer: In the U.S. most oats are flattened to produce rolled oats, or steamed and flattened to create “quick oats.” Rolled oats and “quick oats” processed simply by flattening and/or steaming should be considered whole grains because they contain all of the bran, germ, and endosperm of whole oats.

  7. Question: Does the term “whole grain” mean the same as “100 percent whole grain”? If a product is labeled as “whole wheat bagel” or “whole wheat pizza,” how much whole wheat should it contain? What is graham flour?

    Answer: FDA has not defined any claims concerning the grain content of foods. However, the agency has established standards of identity for various types of cereal flours and related products in 21 CFR Part 137, including a standard of identity for “whole wheat flour” (§ 137.200) and “whole durum flour” (§ 137.225). Graham flour is an alternative name for whole wheat flour (§ 137.200).

    Depending on the context in which a “whole grain” statement appears on the label, it could be construed as meaning that the product is “100 percent whole grain.” We recommend that products labeled with “100 percent whole grain” not contain grain ingredients other than those the agency considers to be whole grains. Consumers should be able to look at the ingredient statement to determine whether the predominant or first ingredient listed is a whole grain. We note that wheat flour should not be labeled as a whole grain flour because wheat flour is a synonym of flour (§ 137.105), and thus, the bran and germ have been removed. However, whole wheat flour (§ 137.200) should be considered a whole grain flour because it contains all the parts of the grain, i.e., the bran, endosperm, and germ. We recommend that pizza that is labeled “whole grain ” or “whole wheat” only be labeled as such when the flour ingredient in the crust is made entirely from whole grain flours or whole wheat flour, respectively. Similarly, we recommend that bagels, labeled as “whole grain ” or “whole wheat” only be labeled as such when bagels are made entirely from whole grain flours or whole wheat flour, respectively.

  8. Question: What is durum wheat? Is it 100 percent whole grain? What products are made from durum wheat?

    Answer: Durum wheat is a type of wheat that has a high protein content and the flour has a yellow color. It is typically used for semolina and pastas. Durum flour should not be considered a whole grain flour because the germ and bran have been removed (21 CFR 137.220). However, whole durum flour (21 CFR 137.225) should be considered a whole grain flour because the flour contains all the parts of the grain, i.e., the bran, endosperm, and germ. We recommend that products labeled with “100 percent durum wheat” statements be made entirely with durum flour and products labeled “whole grain” be made entirely from whole durum flour.

  9. Question: Are there standards of identity for products made from whole grains?

    Answer: There are no standards of identity for whole grain products per se. However, there are standards of identity for whole wheat bread, rolls, and buns (21 CFR 136.180) and whole wheat macaroni products (21 CFR 139.138) which are made from whole wheat flours. For bread, rolls, and buns, the dough is made from whole wheat flour, brominated whole wheat flour, or a combination of these and no other type of flour is used. Whole wheat macaroni products are made from whole wheat flour, whole durum wheat flour, or both.

  10. Question: What types of label statements about whole grains are currently permitted to be made on food products?

    Answer: Manufacturers can make factual statements about whole grains on the label of their products, such as “10 grams of whole grains,” “½ ounce of whole grains,” (21 CFR 101.13(i)(3)) and “100% whole grain oatmeal” (as percentage labeling under 21 CFR 102.5(b)), provided that the statements are not false or misleading under section 403(a) of the Act and do not imply a particular level of the ingredient, i.e., “high” or “excellent source.”

    In addition, labels may bear a health claim based on an authoritative statement of a scientific body relating whole grains with a reduced risk of heart disease and certain cancers if the food meets the qualifications of one of the notifications submitted under section 403(r)(3)(C) of the Act (see FDA Modernization Act of 1997 (FDAMA) Claims).

  11. Question: Can the name of the particular whole grain be substituted for the term “whole grain” in label statements? For example, could the statement “100% brown rice” replace the statement “100% whole grains” or “1 ounce whole wheat ” replace “1 ounce whole grain?”

    Answer: The specific name of the whole grain (e.g., brown rice) can be used for label statements made under 21 CFR 102.5(b) or 21 CFR 101.13(i) (3) as long as the statement is truthful and not misleading. However, “whole grains” is the substance of the health claims established under section 403(r) (3)(C) of the Act and the name of a particular whole grain can not be substituted for the term “whole grain foods” in the health claims.

IV. References

The following reference have been placed on display in the Division of Dockets Management (see ADDRESSES) and may be seen by interested persons between 9 a.m. and 4 p.m., Monday through Friday.

2. Hoseney, R. Carl, “Corn,” “Principles of Cereal Science and Technology,” St. Paul, MN, 1986.

Submit Comments

You can submit online or written comments on any guidance at any time (see 21 CFR 10.115(g)(5))

If unable to submit comments online, please mail written comments to:

Dockets Management
Food and Drug Administration
5630 Fishers Lane, Rm 1061
Rockville, MD 20852

All written comments should be identified with this document’s docket number: FDA-2006-D-0298.

In the 30-Day Nutrition Upgrade program, players earn points by choosing whole grain foods instead of refined grain foods. But distinguishing one from the other can sometimes require an advanced degree in label reading! As one of my Upgraders recently posted in our private Facebook group:

“Labels on food can be confusing. Pasta labels are especially confusing – one says ‘durum wheat semolina’ and another says ‘enriched durum wheat semolina’. I know enriched means refined but if it doesn’t say enriched does that mean it’s whole grain?”

Let’s break down some of this terminology:

“Durum” is a strain of wheat that is used mostly for pasta, due to its higher protein content. (Think of “Durum” as its first name and “Wheat” as its family name.) But unless it says “whole grain” you can assume that it is refined, which means that the nutritious germ and fibrous bran have been removed.

The word “Semolina,” on the other hand, refers to the fact that the durum wheat is coarsely ground–again, in order to produce good pasta texture. The word “semolina” is sort of like the designation “Esquire” after a lawyers name; it’s not part of the lawyer’s identity like her first or last name but an indication of her preparation and function.)

The word “enriched” almost always signals a refined grain. Refined grains are often enriched in an effort to replace the nutrients that are lost to refining. You will virtually never see “enriched whole wheat,” because it would be unnecessary to replace nutrients that have not been removed. However, the absence of the word “enriched” doesn’t mean that it is not refined.

You can save yourself a lot of label reading by looking for the 100% whole grain stamp. When you see this (or the words “100% whole grain”) on the front of the package, you don’t even need to flip the package over to see the ingredient list….that’s the golden ticket right there.

Organic Stone Ground Whole Durum Flour

Description

Organic Stone Ground Whole Durum Flour – 3, 10 or 50 lb bags

Durum is the hardest of all wheats. Its density, combined with its high protein content and gluten strength, make durum the wheat of choice for producing premium pasta products. When combined with all purpose or bread flour, it’s also a key ingredient in some “Italian Style” breads like our awesome Sicilian No Knead Bread, or a crispy pizza crust.

Our 100% Certified Organic whole durum flour is just that — whole. It contains the entire durum grain including the bran and germ where most of the nutrients reside. It is supplied to us by Kamut International, the same folks who bring us Kamut brand khoransan wheat.

Milled Fresh — Our durum flour is milled fresh upon order. We use granite stone mills and mill at low temperature within a day or two of shipping. Your flour arrives as fresh as possible, retaining maximum nutritional value and flavor.

Our grain is grown by family-owned and operated farms — certified organic farms that are committed to ideals of sustainable stewardship of our natural resources for those of future generations.

Please read “Is Durum Wheat Flour Healthy?“, by Dr. Oz, MD, and Michael F. Roizen, MD

Additional Info:
Durum wheat wheat is the only tetraploid species of wheat of commercial importance that is widely cultivated today (tetraploid wheat has 28 chromosomes, unlike hard red winter and hard red spring wheats, which are hexaploid and have 42 chromosomes each). Durum was selected from domesticated emmer wheat strains formerly grown in Central Europe and the Near East around 7000 B.C.

Durum in Latin means “hard”, and the species is the hardest of all wheats. Its high protein content, as well as its strength, make durum good for special uses, the most well-known being pasta which in Italy is exclusively made from durum wheat. Durum wheat is used extensively in breadmaking. However, it is unusual in that, despite very high protein content, it is low in desirable gluten needed to form a glutinous web necessary for bread to rise. As a result, although 100 percent durum wheat breads do exist, such as pagnotte di Enna from Sicily, as well as others, in most instances bread doughs contain only a portion of durum wheat and are supplemented substantially with commercial white flours, oftentimes those higher in gluten necessary to offset the poor gluten contribution of durum flour. When durum flour is used as the sole flour in bread, substantial additions of isolated wheat gluten are necessary to effect rising. Without it, 100 percent durum wheat breads are often heavy, with very close grain, and will split easily when risen for baking.

Source: Wikipedia

Since this flour contains wheat germ and wheat germ is an oil, this flour will not keep for as long as typical commercially milled white flour. Do not purchase more than you expect to consume within a few months. We recommend keeping your flour in air tight packaging or container and storing in a cool place or preferably the refrigerator or freezer.

Supermarket Buying Guide

Understanding pasta products

To make pasta—the Italian word for paste—flour is mixed with water and the resulting dough formed into different shapes, from spaghetti and linguini to penne and fusilli. Egg noodles additionally contain egg whites or whole eggs, with at least 5.5 percent of the noodle’s weight coming from the eggs.

Traditional Italian pasta is made with semolina flour, which is milled from durum wheat (a hard wheat that is high in the protein gluten, which gives this flour more elasticity and strength). Semolina is coarsely ground but always made from refined grain. The term “enriched semolina flour” clues you in to the fact that the wheat is refined.

Once found only in health-food stores, healthful whole-wheat pastas, from spaghetti to elbow macaroni, are now available in mainstream markets. With improved technology, they are no longer chewy or gummy and instead cook up beautifully al dente, with a satisfying wheaty flavor. Pasta that is 100 percent whole-wheat has the nutritional edge—a serving (2 ounces, uncooked) has 4 to 7 grams of fiber, for instance, compared to only 2 grams in regular pasta. But if your taste buds are not yet up to it, you can try a whole-wheat pasta blend, which contains both whole wheat and refined grains. Several brands offer such blends now with varying amounts of whole wheat—some are 50/50, others more or less. Some blends have oat or wheat bran fiber added to boost the fiber content.

Keep in mind, whole-grain pasta is not limited to whole wheat. You can find pastas made from quinoa, kamut, amaranth and buckwheat (soba noodles)—a nice change of pace from regular pasta and a boon for people diagnosed with wheat allergies or gluten intolerance or sensitivity. (These products may be made in facilities that process several grains, however, so if you have a problem with gluten, look for ones that are certified gluten-free.) Some pastas combine different grains; a few contain flaxseeds, a source of plant omega-3 fats (alpha linolenic acid), though usually in small amounts.

What about “flavored” pastas, such as spinach and tomato? Unless made from whole grains, they are no different nutritionally from regular pastas. And they don’t count as a serving of vegetables, either, because they usually contain only traces of vegetables for coloring and a hint of flavor at best. A cup of cooked spinach pasta contains the equivalent of less than a tablespoon of spinach.

Picking a Pasta Sauce

What’s spaghetti without sauce? But which to choose? This is where your pasta meal can go in either of two drastically different directions.

Durum

Durum Wheat.

Durum wheat is a type of wheat that contains high percentages of protein, fibre, and other vitamins and low percentages of gluten. It is one of the most nutritional wheats. It is frequently used to make pastas and thicker breads. It was developed by artificial selection from diploid grasses. Durum gets its name from the Latin word for “hard”. Although it’s very heavy, which makes it hard for bakers to make bread because they need a lighter wheat to make the bread rise. The appearance of pasta is yellow in colour due to the endosperm which has nutritional value however white pastas and noodles generally contain little or no nutritional value. Semolina is the name given to pastas that are made from Durum wheat.

Contents

  • 1 Manufacturing
  • 2 Genealogy
  • 3 Uses
  • 4 References

Manufacturing

When preparing durum wheat for processing, it goes through 4 processes. First is the cleaning to remove impurities such as foreign seeds and kernels as well as the bran and germ. The next step is tempering the durum wheat, when it is milled, its endosperm is ground up into a product called semolina whose quality and granulation will be determined by this process. peeling or pearling is done to remove layers of bran, this improves the time it takes to mill and reduces contamination of the finished semolina. The semolina is first ground by dull grinding rolls after that it is separated into passages of different sizes that use a sharp grinding process. There are about seven passages to reduce the amount of endosperm that get separated from the bran. The last process is the purification process. This is done by sifting the ground semolina into the purifiers that separate the good endosperm from bran and the clustered compounds.

Genealogy

Durum is a allotetraploid wheat (it has two genomes: AABB), it has 28 chromosomes. Durum wheat originates from the process of crossing of two types of plants over hundreds of years to produce Durum, this is called intergeneric hybridisation. Two species of diploid grass, Triticum urartu (AA genome). The BB genome is unknown.

Uses

Many of the varieties of flatbread made from durum wheat come from North Africa and the Middle East. The breads made from durum wheat are ver filling due to the heaviness of the wheat. It is also used to make cous cous which is a grain like dish that look like small pebbles. The thick texture is great for making pasta, it wraps the ingredients together when making pasta shapes. Durum wheat is extremely common in pasta which has led to it being referred as macaroni wheat. It is used in the Middle East and North Africa to make thick loaves of bread and flatbreads like naan. It is used to make pasta because it is of its coarse nature and low gluten content.

References

Food Portal — All articles about food, chefs, restaurants, cookbooks and more

Is durum semolina pasta healthy?

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