Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Tongue

The image below shows structures resected for deeply invasive squamous cell carcinoma extensively involving the tongue and extending to abut the larynx.

Which statement about these tumors is most accurate?

  • a.

    Oral tongue cancer is often diagnosed at an advanced stage, unlike cancer of the base of the tongue

  • b.

    Squamous cell carcinomas of the base of the tongue may be associated with human papillomavirus

  • c.

    Tongue carcinomas are usually adenocarcinomas

  • d.

    The prognosis for oropharyngeal carcinoma is based only on nodal stage

Answer: b. Squamous cell carcinomas of the base of the tongue may be associated with human papilloma virus

Oral tongue cancer tends to be diagnosed when the tumor is small and more easily removed, while cancer of the base of the tongue is often diagnosed at a more advanced stage. Squamous cell carcinomas of the base of the tongue may be associated with human papillomavirus, which can have an effect on prognosis and treatment.1x1Sivars, L., Bersani, C., Grün, N. et al. Human papillomavirus is a favourable prognostic factor in cancer of unknown primary in the head and neck region and in hypopharyngeal cancer. Mol Clin Oncol. 2016; 5: 671–674
Crossref | PubMed | Google ScholarSee all References The prognosis for oropharyngeal carcinoma is based on human papillomavirus status, smoking history, tumor stage, and nodal stage.

Microscopy shows squamous cell carcinoma infiltrating skeletal muscle.

Common cancers you can be treated for in Barron include colon, lymphoma, prostate, and skin/melanoma.

COLON CANCER

According to the Centers for Disease Control, colon cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in the U.S. Colon cancer is cancer of the large intestine (colon), which is the lower part of your digestive system, and rectal cancer, which occurs in the last several inches of your colon.

Signs and symptoms of colon cancer include:

  • A change in your bowel habits, including diarrhea or constipation or a change in the consistency of your stool that lasts longer than four weeks
  • Rectal bleeding or blood in your stool
  • Persistent abdominal discomfort, such as cramps, gas or pain
  • A feeling that your bowel doesn’t empty completely
  • Weakness or fatigue
  • Unexplained weight loss

Many people with colon cancer experience no symptoms in the early stages of the disease. When symptoms appear, they’ll likely vary, depending on the cancer’s size and location in your large intestine. If you notice any symptoms of colon cancer, such as blood in your stool or an ongoing change in bowel habits, do not hesitate to make an appointment with your doctor.

Get screened for colon cancer. People with an average risk of colon cancer can consider colon cancer screening beginning at age 50. But people with an increased risk, such as those with a family history of colon cancer, should consider screening sooner.

LYMPHOMA

Lymphoma is a cancer of the lymphatic system, which is part of the body’s germ-fighting network. The lymphatic system includes the lymph nodes/glands, spleen, thymus gland and bone marrow. Lymphoma can affect all those areas, as well as other organs throughout the body.

Many types of lymphoma exist. The main subtypes are:

  • Hodgkin’s lymphoma (formerly called Hodgkin’s disease)
  • Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma

Signs and symptoms of lymphoma may include:

  • Painless swelling of lymph nodes in your neck, armpits or groin
  • Persistent fatigue
  • Fever
  • Night sweats
  • Shortness of breath
  • Unexplained weight loss

PROSTATE CANCER

Prostate cancer is cancer that occurs in the prostate. The prostate is a small walnut-shaped gland in men that produces the seminal fluid that nourishes and transports sperm. It is one of the most common types of cancer in men. Usually, it grows slowly and initially is confined to the prostate gland, where it may not cause serious harm. However, while some types of prostate cancer grow slowly and may need minimal or even no treatment, other types are aggressive and can spread quickly.

Prostate cancer may cause no signs or symptoms in its early stages. Prostate cancer that’s more advanced may cause signs and symptoms, such as:

  • Trouble urinating
  • Decreased force in the stream of urine
  • Blood in semen
  • Discomfort in the pelvic area
  • Bone pain
  • Erectile dysfunction

Make an appointment with your doctor if you have any signs or symptoms that worry you.

SKIN CANCER/MELANOMA

Skin cancer, the abnormal growth of skin cells, develops primarily on areas of sun-exposed skin, including the scalp, face, lips, ears, neck, chest, arms and hands, and on the legs in women. But it can also form on areas that rarely see the light of day — palms, beneath fingernails or toenails and genital area.

There are three major types of skin cancer:

  • Basal cell carcinoma — This skin cancer usually occurs in sun-exposed areas of your body, such as your neck or face. It may appear as a pearly or waxy bump, or a flat, flesh-colored or brown scar-like lesion.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma — Most often, this skin cancer occurs on sun-exposed areas of your body, such as your face, ears and hands. People with darker skin are more likely to develop squamous cell carcinoma on areas that aren’t often exposed to the sun. It may appear as a firm, red nodule, or a flat lesion with a scaly, crusted surface.
  • Melanoma — This skin cancer can develop anywhere on your body, in otherwise normal skin or in an existing mole that becomes cancerous. Melanoma most often appears on the face or the trunk of affected men. In women, this type of cancer most often develops on the lower legs. In both men and women, melanoma can occur on skin that hasn’t been exposed to the sun. It can affect people of any skin tone. In people with darker skin tones, melanoma tends to occur on the palms or soles, or under the fingernails or toenails. Melanoma signs include:
  • A large brownish spot with darker speckles
  • A mole that changes in color, size or feel or that bleeds
  • A small lesion with an irregular border and portions that appear red, white, blue or blue-black
  • Dark lesions on your palms, soles, fingertips or toes, or on mucous membranes lining your mouth, nose, vagina or anus

Most skin cancers are preventable. To protect yourself, follow these skin cancer prevention tips:

  • Avoid the sun during the middle of the day. For many people in North America, the sun’s rays are strongest between 10 a.m. and 4 p.m.
  • Wear sunscreen year-round. Use a broad-spectrum sunscreen with an SPF of at least 15. Apply sunscreen generously, and reapply every two hours, or more often if you’re swimming or perspiring.
  • Wear protective clothing. Sunscreens don’t provide complete protection from UV rays.
  • Avoid tanning beds.
  • Be aware of sun-sensitizing medications. Some common prescription and over-the-counter drugs, including antibiotics, can make your skin more sensitive to sunlight. Ask your provider or pharmacist about the side effects of any medications you take.
  • Check your skin regularly, and report changes to your doctor.

Make an appointment with your doctor if you notice any changes to your skin that worry you.

Guidelines of care for the management of basal cell carcinoma

TY – JOUR

T1 – Guidelines of care for the management of basal cell carcinoma

AU – Baum, Christian

AU – Bordeaux, Jeremy S.

AU – Brown, Marc

AU – Busam, Klaus J.

AU – Eisen, Daniel B.

AU – Iyengar, Vivek

AU – Lober, Clifford

AU – Margolis, David J.

AU – Messina, Jane

AU – Miller, Alexander

AU – Miller, Stanley

AU – Mostow, Eliot

AU – Mowad, Christen

AU – Nehal, Kishwer

AU – Schmitt-Burr, Kristi

AU – Sekulic, Aleksandar D

AU – Storrs, Paul

AU – Teng, Joyce

AU – Yu, Siegrid

AU – Huang, Conway

AU – Boyer, Kevin

AU – Begolka, Wendy Smith

AU – Alam, Murad

AU – Kim, John Y.S.

AU – Kozlow, Jeffrey H.

AU – Mittal, Bharat

AU – Moyer, Jeffrey

AU – Olencki, Thomas

AU – Rodgers, Phillip

PY – 2018/1/1

Y1 – 2018/1/1

N2 – Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common form of human cancer, with a continually increasing annual incidence in the United States. When diagnosed early, the majority of BCCs are readily treated with office-based therapy, which is highly curative. In these evidence-based guidelines of care, we provide recommendations for the management of patients with BCC, as well as an in-depth review of the best available literature in support of these recommendations. We discuss biopsy techniques for a clinically suspicious lesion and offer recommendations for the histopathologic interpretation of BCC. In the absence of a formal staging system, the best available stratification based on risk for recurrence is reviewed. With regard to treatment, we provide recommendations on treatment modalities along a broad therapeutic spectrum, ranging from topical agents and superficially destructive modalities to surgical techniques and systemic therapy. Finally, we review the available literature and provide recommendations on prevention and the most appropriate follow-up for patients in whom BCC has been diagnosed.

AB – Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common form of human cancer, with a continually increasing annual incidence in the United States. When diagnosed early, the majority of BCCs are readily treated with office-based therapy, which is highly curative. In these evidence-based guidelines of care, we provide recommendations for the management of patients with BCC, as well as an in-depth review of the best available literature in support of these recommendations. We discuss biopsy techniques for a clinically suspicious lesion and offer recommendations for the histopathologic interpretation of BCC. In the absence of a formal staging system, the best available stratification based on risk for recurrence is reviewed. With regard to treatment, we provide recommendations on treatment modalities along a broad therapeutic spectrum, ranging from topical agents and superficially destructive modalities to surgical techniques and systemic therapy. Finally, we review the available literature and provide recommendations on prevention and the most appropriate follow-up for patients in whom BCC has been diagnosed.

KW – Basal cell carcinoma

KW – Biopsy

KW – Curettage

KW – Metastasis

KW – Phototherapy

KW – Radiotherapy

KW – Staging

KW – Surgery

KW – Surveillance

KW – Topical therapy

UR – http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85040325778&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR – http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85040325778&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 – 10.1016/j.jaad.2017.10.006

DO – 10.1016/j.jaad.2017.10.006

M3 – Article

C2 – 29331385

JO – Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology

JF – Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology

SN – 0190-9622

ER –

Two Types of Skin Cancer Are Increasing at Startling Rates

While you’re (hopefully!) applying SPF to your face every day in the form of sunscreen, moisturizer, or foundation, you probably aren’t slathering your entire body before you get dressed every morning. But a new study might convince you to start.

A report published by Mayo Clinic is urging people to start adopting a year-round (yes, even on cloudy days) all-body sunscreen routine on any exposed skin because two types of skin cancer are on the rise. The Mayo Clinic-led research team discovered that between 2000 and 2010, new basal cell carcinoma (BCC) diagnoses rose 145 percent, and new squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) diagnoses rose 263 percent among women. The report shows that women ages 30-49 experienced the greatest increase in BCC diagnosis whereas women 40-59 and 70-79 experienced the greatest increase in SCC. Men, on the other hand, showed a slight decline in both forms of cancer over the same period of time.

BCCs and SCCs are the two most common forms of skin cancer, but the good thing is they don’t spread across the body like melanomas. That said, it is still important to identify the affected areas as soon as possible-and better yet, take preventative measures to make sure you don’t develop skin cancer in the first place. (Related: Caffeine Might Help Reduce Skin Cancer Risk)

Yes, it’s important to remember to reapply while you’re purposefully spending time in the sun-according to the American Academy of Dermatology, you should be applying sunscreen every two hours or every time after swimming or sweating. (Try the best sunscreens for working out.) But the report really hammers home the point that sunscreen should be the most important element of your skin care routine-even on chilly days when catching rays is the last thing on your mind. And remember, UV radiation can cause skin damage even when you’re indoors.

Save your skin from cancer

Rates of the two most common skin cancers have more than doubled over the past decade. Here’s how to protect yourself.

Published: July, 2018

When it comes to skin cancer, there’s good news and bad news. First, the bad news. A report published in the June 2017 Mayo Clinic Proceedings found that cases of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) skin cancers have risen 263% and 145%, respectively, over the past decade.

The good news? BCC and SCC are rarely life-threatening and they’re usually easy to treat if they’re caught early. Plus, there are simple ways to prevent them.

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Virotherapy for Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Squamous cell cancer of the head and neck (SCCHN) is locally invasive, and frequently spreads to the cervical lymph nodes. Locally advanced disease is treated with radiotherapy plus chemotherapy and/or cetuximab (an anti-EGF receptor antibody), but the cure rate is less than 40% and toxicities are severe. The overall goal of this SBIR grant proposal is to enhance the outcomes of therapy for patients with locally advanced or relapsed SCCHN without increasing treatment related toxicity. MV-NIS is an improved oncolytic measles virus that has been engineered to code for the thyroidal sodium iodide symporter (NIS), is amenable to noninvasive monitoring by radioiodine imaging and has antitumor activity in the FaDu mouse xenograft model of human SCCHN. MV-NIS has been administered safely to human subjects but never by direct intratumoral injection. In light of its demonstrated safety, its activity in preclinical SCCHN models, and its potential compatibility with chemoradiotherapy, we now hypothesize that MV-NIS can significantly enhance the outcomes of therapy for SCCHN when correctly incorporated into existing treatment programs for locally advanced disease. Specific aims are as follows: Phase I SBIR Aim 1. To evaluate the impact of humoral immunity on the antitumor activity of MV-NIS, given as direct intratumoral injection, in mice with human SCCHN xenografts. Phase II SBIR Aim 2. To conduct a phase I clinical trial of single agent MV-NIS, administered by intratumoral inoculation, in patients with relapsed SCCHN. Aim 3. To determine whether established treatment modalities for SCCHN are compatible with intratumoral MV-NIS in preclinical models. Upon completion of this work, NISCO will be ready to combine MV-NIS with conventional SCCHN frontline therapy in a phase II clinical trial in patients with locally advanced disease. This will be the precursor of a pivotal phase II/III study to prove the utility of MV-NIS in the treatment of locally advanced SCCHN. PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: Oncolytic virotherapy is a promising new approach to the treatment of cancer, but its development has been hindered by the lack of available technologies for non-invasively monitoring the spread and elimination of the virus infection in a treated patient. NISCO has acquired an oncolytic measles virus (MV-NIS) that has been engineered to facilitate the application of non-invasive imaging technologies to monitor its spread. Based on the observation that MV-NIS is effective in a preclinical model of head and neck cancer, NISCO now proposes to advance the virus to clinical testing in poor prognosis patients with this form of cancer. The expectation is that the new virus will prove effective therapy for head and neck cancer and that non-invasive monitoring of viral spread will allow us to optimize dosing, scheduling, and synergistic interactions with conventional head and neck cancer treatments.

Once the leading cause of cancer death in women, cervical cancer cases have lessened in recent years. However, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention note that more than 12,000 cases of cervical cancer were diagnosed and more than 4,000 women died from the disease in 2012. These data indicate cervical cancer is still a major threat to the well-being of women.

What is cervical cancer?

Cervical cancer occurs in the lower part of the uterus known as the cervix, which connects the uterus to the vagina. The most common types are squamous cell carcinoma — occurring in squamous cells, which line the outer part of the cervix — and adenocarcinoma — developing in glandular cells in the cervical canal.

Numerous strains of the sexually transmitted infection human papillomavirus (HPV) contribute to the growth of cervical cancer cells. Many women’s immune systems combat HPV, preventing the virus from causing cancer. Yet, some women are more susceptible to cervical cancer as HPV lives in their bodies for years and aids in the emergence of cancer cells.

Are symptoms obvious?

No. In fact, the majority of women with cervical cancer won’t experience any signs in early stages. As the disease progresses, you may notice:

  • Vaginal bleeding after intercourse, between periods or after menopause
  • Watery, bloody vaginal discharge that may be heavy and have a foul odor
  • Pelvic pain or lower back pain

Talk to your health care team as soon as possible if you have worrisome symptoms.

What elevates risk?

The following are risk factors for cervical cancer:

  • Multiple sexual partners
  • Sexual activity at a young age
  • Other sexually transmitted infections
  • Weak immune system
  • Smoking

How can you prevent cervical cancer?

The most effective ways to reduce cervical cancer risk include:

  • Getting vaccinated against HPV. The HPV vaccine is available for females ages 9 to 26.
  • Having routine Pap tests. Most health care experts recommend beginning Pap tests, which detect precancerous conditions of the cervix, at age 21.
  • Practicing safe sex. Limiting sexual partners, using condoms and abstaining from sex at early ages helps limit risk.
  • Not smoking. Don’t smoke, or quit if you do. Smoking is correlated with squamous cell cervical cancer.

Do treatments exist?

Yes. Depending on the stage of the disease, your health status and personal preferences, different treatment options are available. The earlier cervical cancer is detected, the more successful treatment tends to be. Common treatments include surgery, radiation, chemotherapy or a combination of all three.

After consulting with their health care team, some women may choose to have a hysterectomy (removal of the uterus) to cure early-stage cervical cancer and prevent recurrence. A hysterectomy inhibits any chance of conceiving a child.

Through awareness and diligent health management, patients and health care providers can continue to reduce the instances of and casualties from cervical cancer.

Sonal Grover, M.D., is a obstetrician and gynecologist at Mayo Clinic Health System in Mankato.

Squamous cell carcinoma mayo clinic

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